The highest EU energy dependency rates are in Cyprus, Malta, Luxembourg and Ireland

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In the EU27, gross inland energy consumption was 1,825 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) in 2006, stable compared with 2005, while energy production decreased by 2.3% to 871 mn toe. As a result, net imports increased by 2.4% in 2006 and the energy dependence rate rose to 54% from 53% in 2005.

Between 1997 and 2006, EU27 energy production fell by 9%, consumption rose by 7% and net imports rose by 29%. In 1997 the energy dependence rate stood at 45%.

Energy dependency more than 90% in Cyprus, Malta, Luxembourg and Ireland

The highest increase in energy consumption between 2005 and 2006 was recorded in Finland (+9.1%), and the largest decrease in Malta (-6.4%). For the five largest energy consumers, which together accounted for nearly two thirds of total consumption in the EU27, the change in consumption was +0.5% in Germany, -1.2% in France, -1.6% in the United Kingdom, -0.6% in Italy and -0.5% in Spain.

In 2006, the highest energy dependence rates were found in Cyprus (102%), Malta (100%), Luxembourg (99%) and Ireland (91%). The Member States the least dependent on energy imports were Poland (20%), the United Kingdom (20%), the Czech Republic (28%) and Romania (29%). Denmark is a net exporter of energy and therefore has a negative energy dependence rate (-37%). In 2006, EU27 net imports of energy rose by 2.4% to 1 010 mn toe. Energy imports were dominated by oil and gas, accounting for around 60% and 26% respectively of the EU27’s net imports. The most important extra-EU27 suppliers of crude oil and natural gas were Russia (33% of oil imports and 40% of gas imports in 2006) and Norway (16% and 23% respectively).

Nuclear power and solid fuels made up half of EU27 energy production

In 2006, EU27 energy production decreased by 2.3%. The four main energy producers in the EU27 were the United Kingdom (184 mn toe, -9.2% compared with 2005), Germany (137 mn toe, +0.9%), France (136 mn toe, +0.1%) and Poland (77 mn toe, -1.1%), which together accounted for more than 60% of total production in the EU27. The largest decrease in energy production between 2005 and 2006 was registered in Lithuania (-11.9%), while the largest increase was recorded in Portugal (+20.7%).

EU27 energy production in 2006 came from nuclear power (29% of total production), solid fuels (22%), gas (20%), renewables5 (15%) and crude oil (14%).

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